NoSQL Databases

NoSQL DatabasesNoSQL databases have entered the radar of web application developers lately. While relational database management systems (RDBMS) have been powering almost every web application on the Internet for more than a decade, this is beginning to change. No longer is the selection of persistence technology a no-brainer. You have additional choices. Besides the old friend RDBMS, there are object-oriented databases, graph-oriented databases, key-value stores, column-oriented databases, and other options. Many of the newer products in this area are known as NoSQL databases. NoSQL is a movement that promotes persistence technologies that break with the conventional relational model. NoSQL databases typically don’t have tables schemas, SQL support, and are designed to scale horizontally.

For those of you old enough to remember Dbase, the NoSQL moniker may not be much of an attention grabber, because after all, products like Dbase, FoxPro, Clipper and similar DB systems never had SQL support either. With these systems, relations had to be expressed implicitly in the application and “queries” had to be coded as retrieval sequences. By contrast, modern NoSQL systems depart from the relational model and in many cases also from the tabular data structure, in order to serve use cases where traditional RDBMS fail in one or another way. A typical example would be a sparsely populated table that contains very few data in rows and columns. Such a table -if it grows to a large size- presents an efficiency problem to most RDBMS with resulting performance loss. In the remainder of this article, we will look at a few selected NoSQL databases and see which use cases they cater to.


Apache CouchDB is a document-oriented database that represents documents as JSON objects. CouchDB supports all data types supported by JSON, or respectively by Javascript. The JSON objects are not required to comply with schemas and can therefore be defined freely, which means that each JSON object can have a different structure. CouchDB supports queries by views. Views are aggregate functions and filters programmed in Javascript that follow the MapReduce algorithm. Views are stored and indexed in the database. CouchDB provides a RESTful API where every object (and any other item) in the database can be retrieved by an URL. It uses the HTTP POST, GET, PUT, and DELETE methods for CRUD operations. Other features include ACID semantics on basis of multi-version concurrency control, similar to RDBMS, which is optimised for a high number of concurrent reads, and a distributed architecture that allows for easy bidirectional replication and offline usage. CouchDB is thus designed from ground up for Internet use.


Neo4J is a graph database. As the name suggests, it is intended for use with the Java platform, which includes any language that runs on the JVM. Neo4J stores information in nodes and edges; the latter are called relationships in case of Neo4J. Relationships are always of a defined type. Both nodes and relationships can store properties, i.e. data. The Neo4J database is thus optimised for representing complex graph and network structures, such as a hierarchical object repository or a social network. It offers high-performance graph traversal operations for data access. Nodes can also be indexed and retrieved by key which enables more conventional style queries. Additional features include ACID transactions and transaction recovery, based on the Java Transaction API (JTA). Optional libraries can expose a Neo4J database as an RDF store where the node space can be queried using SPARQL. Neo4J is an embedded database with a small footprint that runs in the same JVM as the application.


Redis is a modern implementation of a persistent key-value store for general purpose use. Key-value store is a name for a simple key-based access mechanism that basically implements a dictionary (or map) data structure. Traditionally, such systems were used for caching and Redis holds its entire database in memory, which makes it ideal for applications that require ultra-fast data access. Redis allows not just plain string data but also allows sets and lists of strings in the data space. The system offers a number of special commands, such as atomic push/pop and add/remove operations for lists and set operations such as building union, intersection, and difference. Redis persists data either by asynchronously writing memory to disk, or by appending to a journalling file as data is written by clients. Additional features include easy master-slave replication and rudimentary sharding. Redis offers support for various languages, such as C/C++, Java, Scala, PHP and others through native drivers and APIs.


HBase is a free implementation of Google’s BigTable written in Java. It is not the type of database you would use for a blog or a forum software. HBase is a tabular data storage designed for massive tables in the Petabyte range with billions of rows distributed over a number of physical machines and thus optimised for horizontal scaling. HBase is part of the Apache Hadoop project, a framework for data-intensive distributed applications, inspired by Google’s MapReduce and GFS technologies. Hadoop supports the database through its distributed filesystem HDFS which provides built-in replication and MapReduce traversal for HBase tables of arbitrary size. Features include optimised query push down via server-side scan and get filters, a high performance Thrift gateway, an XLM-based RESTful Webservice gateway, Hadoop cascading, per-column probabilistic Bloom filters, as well as data warehousing and data analysis modules. Since HBase saves column families rather than columns and since empty columns are not stored, it is ideal for sparse tables with semi-structured data. Typical use cases are cloud computing and applications that require massive storage using cheap commodity hardware.


Db4o is an open-source object-oriented database system targeted at OOP developers. The idea behind Db4o is to enable programmers to create and persist a representation of the application object model directly in the database without the need for an object-relational mapping software layer. Object instances can then be stored and retrieved with a single line of code. Db4o provides a query mechanism called Native Query (NQ). This allows querying data with native OOP language constructs thus offering type safety for query expressions while eliminating the need for building query strings. Db4o is available for the Java and .NET platforms. If used with .NET languages, data can alternatively be queried with LINQ (language integrated query). The Db4o database is embeddable with a small footprint suitable to be deployed on mobile devices. Additional features include semi-automatic schema versioning, transaction support with ACID semantics, and synchronisation/replication mechanisms that allow synchronisation between different Db4o instances and data export into SQL databases.