Ajax: a rising star

Until recently most people have associated the name Ajax either with a detergent or with a Dutch football team. This has changed as Ajax has caused a furore in the web development world. It began in 2005 with the introduction of new and highly interactive web applications, such as Gmail, Google Maps (maps.google.com) and Flickr (www.flickr.com), which are based on Ajax programming. Now Ajax is taking the world wide web by storm. The moniker Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Although often touted as new paradigm, neither JavaScript, nor XML, nor asynchronous data transfer is new. This is probably the greatest strength of Ajax.
Because Ajax makes use of well-known web technologies, and because the skill set for these technologies is common, Ajax is spreading fast. But we are proleptic. What exactly is Ajax and what does it do? Ajax is a programming paradigm for web applications. It utilizes a combination of four basic web programming techniques:

  • XHTML (in combination with CSS) for the user interface and web content.
  • JavaScript (or any ECMAScript compliant scripting language) in connection with DOM for the dynamic display of data and user interface components.
  • The XMLHttpRequest object (implemented in JavaScript) for the asynchronous exchange of information.
  • XML as a data format for data exchange (or alternatively plain text, JSON, or any other format).

The only thing new to web developers is probably the XMLHttpRequest object. It is the implementation of an API which can be used by client-side scripting languages to transfer data to and from the server in XML format. This API goes back as far as Internet Explorer 5.0 and the year 1999 when it sported the name “XMLHTTP ActiveX Object”. As such it was primarily known to Microsoft programmers and it led a relatively secluded life. Today most up-to-date browsers support the XMLHttpRequest object and recent web applications have exploited it in new ways to improve user experience.

So what does Ajax do? That is easy to explain. Let’s look at how traditional web applications work. You fill in some information, select some options, click a button and then the web server processes your request. During that time you wait. Then the browser renders a new page, you fill out some more information, select some more options and click another button. You wait again. This process is repeated over and over. At each step of the process the entire page has to be rendered anew. While you wait for the server response and the page refresh you cannot use the application.

Google CalendarAjax changes this. Let’s take Google calendar (www.google.com/calendar) for example. The Google calendar looks very much like a desktop GUI application. It features a monthly overview, a weekly timetable, an agenda, tabs, popup windows to display detail information, and so on. While you work with this calendar, say by retrieving the details of a certain event, the application connects to the server behind the scenes and retrieves event details from the database. Once the data becomes available to the client, it is immediately shown via DHTML without having to reload the page and without having to redraw the entire screen. While the data request is working in the background, you can still work with the calendar. Thus the application is always responsive and feels less clunky and slow than a traditional web application. In fact, it feels much more like a desktop GUI application.

Giving a web application the same look and feel as a GUI application and bringing it on par in terms of usability is -as it were- the Holy Grail of web programming. Until recently this has been very difficult to achieve. There are two reasons for this: the statelessness of web applications, and the lack of sophisticated widgets. The statelessness is a direct consequence of the HTTP protocol which does not deliver any context information to the browser, except for cookies and URL parameters. Hence, it is up to the web application to cache and retrieve session context information between successive page requests. The lack of widgets (or UI components) is due to HTML which is rather penurious with UI elements. There is a text field, a select box, checkbox, a radio button, a push button, and that is all you get. What is worse, the style and behaviour of these elements is difficult to control.

Does Ajax solve all these problems? Does it deliver on the web desktop GUI promise? Well, yes and no. Ajax provides great improvements in user experience by enabling asynchronous background processing through the XMLHttpRequest object. This functionality is great for filling data into UI elements and making a web application more responsive despite the transmission latency. It does not per se provide a richer user interface. The user interface still has to be coded manually and in case of Ajax this typically means DHTML code on basis of JavaScript, CSS, and DOM. A rich application with a variety of interactive elements, such as the mentioned Google calendar, consists of thousands of lines of DHTML code.

On the positive side, DHTML is portable. It runs on multiple browsers on multiple operating systems. It doesn’t require any plug-in or browser extension. This makes it a great choice over platform-dependent interface markup languages, such as XUL (pronounced “zool”) which runs only on Mozilla/Gecko browsers and XAML (pronounced “zammel”) which works only with Internet Explorer. The cross-platform compatibility of DHTML has to be taken with a pinch of salt, however. Since the ECMAScript and DOM implementations vary slightly from browser to browser, DHTML programs tend to be quirky and difficult to debug. At any rate they require rigorous testing. It is not unusual for DHTML programmers to spend more than 50% of their time with debugging.

One good thing about Ajax is that it reduces the amount of data transfer between server and client. It also reduces the web server’s CPU load considerably. This is why web service providers, such as Yahoo or Google, love it. Moving the processing load to the client-side effectively reduces their cost. It is certainly also an advantage in enterprise settings where a single machine or cluster serves a large user community. In short, Ajax is light on the server side and heavy on the client side, thus countering the well-known “thin client” approach with a “thick client” approach.

A further advantage which may come unexpected is that Ajax makes the implementation of an MVC (model/view/controller) architecture relatively simple. The client-side DHTML represents the presentation logic (V), whereas the server implements the model (M) and the controller (C). In practice, however, it is difficult to consign the entire controller code to the server, because this would result in an excessive number of requests and thus in considerable overhead. Depending on the nature of the application it may therefore be more practical to either move all application logic to the client, or to use a nested MVC model with controller modules on both sides. Either way, the MVC architecture is neither an intrinsic part of Ajax nor even a necessity, but it is certainly worthwhile considering when designing an Ajax application.

Web developers who have previously worked with a server-side scripting language, such as JSP, PHP, or ASP find that Ajax changes their world. Suddenly a huge chunk -if not all- of the application logic moves to JavaScript. The server-side scripts become lean and simple. In some cases they are reduced to a conduit to the backend, for example a SOAP server or a custom XML protocol. The ultimate Ajaxian approach is perhaps to rid the landscape entirely of XML and to use the JSON format instead. JSON represents data structures better to JavaScript. However, if the data is to be transformed into markup text, it may be more efficient to use an XSLT stylesheet to process XML and produce HTML output, rather than manually parsing and translating JSON.

So what are the drawbacks of Ajax? Are there any? Well, yes… We already mentioned its biggest disadvantage… JavaScript! Not that it is a bad language. Far from it. JavaScript is high-level, powerful, object-oriented, secure, and certainly very useful. However, it is more difficult to debug and maintain than pure server-side scripts. For example, with server-side scripts you never need to waste any thought on browser incompatibilities.

There are other disadvantages. One problem is that Ajax programs tend to mess up the functionality of the sweepingly popular and heavily used back button of the browser. The button doesn’t behave as users expect, because having eliminated successive page loads, the browser doesn’t keep a history anymore. There is a workaround for this. An invisible IFRAME element can be used for data transfer instead of the XMLHttpRequest object. The back button, or rather the history, remembers subsequent IFRAME page loads.

Are there any alternatives to Ajax? Yes, there are many alternative technologies which can accomplish the same as Ajax. Some are experimental, some are platform-dependent. There are two mature platform-independent products that allow the creation of rich GUIs and asynchronous data transfers, namely Java and Macromedia Flash/ActionScript.

Both of these products constitute interesting and commercially viable alternatives.
Of the two, Java is better known and more widely used. Java developers are probably surprised at the recent Ajax hype. After all, distributed computing is an integral part of Java. What Ajax does, Java programmers have been doing for years. The obvious solution for the delivery of GUI applications via the Web are Java applets. Unfortunately, applets are quite unpopular, because they are slow to load, isolated, and they require a plug-in. Other Java technologies, such as JSP/JSF or JSP/Struts, allow the creation of standard web applications with rich user interfaces. The downside is that they rely on a Java Server, or respectively a web server with Java-specific extensions.

The popular Adobe (formerly Macromedia) Flash is a client-side technology for the creation and delivery of vector graphics and animations. It comes with its own programming language named ActionScript which is ECMAScript-like. Thanks to ActionScript, the Flash product is capable of more than animation. A technique called Flash Remoting, i.e. RPC executed by ActionScript, accomplishes asynchronous data transfer using XML and AMF (ActionScript Message Format). The excellent graphic capabilities of Flash can be exploited to create rich web applications. However, there are some disadvantages. Flash is a proprietary single vendor technology; it requires a browser plug-in (the manufacturer claims that 95% of all Internet users have the Flash player installed), and it is graphic-centric rather than document-centric. It is still an excellent alternative to Ajax, especially for applications that make heavy use of graphics.